Those five are the duties of universal obligation. Knowledge, magnanimity, and energy, these three, are the virtues universally binding.
Agree with the manuscript's results and conclusions: Wrote the first draft of the paper: Contributed to the writing of the paper: Received Jun 17; Accepted Nov Copyright Chang et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are properly credited.
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We investigated the spatial and temporal evolution of the epidemic to assess its impact on the epidemiology of suicide in Taiwan. Smoothed standardised mortality ratios of charcoal-burning and non-charcoal-burning suicide and undetermined death across townships were estimated using Bayesian hierarchical models.
Trends in overall and method-specific rates were compared between urban and rural areas for the period — The epidemic of charcoal-burning suicide in Taiwan emerged more prominently in urban than rural areas, without a single point of origin, and rates of charcoal-burning suicide remained highest in the metropolitan regions throughout the epidemic.
The rural excess in overall suicide rates prior to diminished as rates of charcoal-burning suicide increased to a greater extent in urban than rural areas.
Conclusions The charcoal-burning epidemic has altered the geography of suicide in Taiwan. The observed pattern and its changes in the past decade suggest that widespread media coverage of this suicide method and easy access to barbecue charcoal may have contributed to the epidemic.
Prevention strategies targeted at these factors, such as introducing and enforcing guidelines on media reporting and restricting access to charcoal, may help tackle the increase of charcoal-burning suicides.
Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary Editors' Summary Background Every year, about a million people take their own lives. Most people who die by suicide are mentally ill but some people take their lives because stressful events the loss of a partner, for example have made life seem worthless or too painful to bear.
Strategies to reduce suicide rates include better treatment of mental illness and programs that help people at high risk of suicide deal with stress.
Suicide rates can also be reduced by limiting access to common suicide methods. These methods differ from place to place. Hanging is the predominant suicide method in many countries but, in Hong Kong, for example, jumping from a high building is the commonest method. Suicide methods also vary over time.
Ina woman in Hong Kong took her life by burning barbecue charcoal in a sealed room a process that produces high levels of the toxic gas carbon monoxide. This method was unheard of before and was extensively reported by the mass media; by the end ofcharcoal-burning suicide became the second most common form of suicide in Hong Kong.
Why Was This Study Done? The epidemic of charcoal-burning suicide that started in Hong Kong has rapidly spread to other countries in East Asia, including Taiwan, where it is also now the second most common method of suicide.
It would be useful to identify the factors that have contributed to the spread of this particular form of suicide because such knowledge might help to improve strategies for preventing charcoal-burning suicide. One way to identify these factors is to examine the space—time clustering of charcoal-burning suicides.
Clustering of specific types of suicides in both time and space usually occurs in settings such as institutions where the individuals who die by suicide have been in social contact. By contrast, clustering of specific types of suicide in time more than place is often associated with media coverage of events such as celebrity suicides, which can lead to imitative suicides.
In this study, therefore, the researchers investigate the evolution of the epidemic of charcoal-burning suicide over time and across areas in Taiwan.
What Did the Researchers Do and Find? They then used statistical methods to estimate the standardized mortality rates the ratio of the observed to the expected numbers of deaths of charcoal-burning and non-charcoal-burning suicides and undetermined deaths in different areas of Taiwan.
The proportion of suicides that were charcoal-burning suicides rose from 0.Jan 05, · The epidemic of charcoal-burning suicide in Taiwan emerged more prominently in urban than rural areas, without a single point of origin, and rates of charcoal-burning suicide remained highest in the metropolitan regions throughout the epidemic.
Dane Wigington initiativeblog.com Has "science" been an overall benefit to the human race? Or has complete corruption of the science community already helped to push us past the point of no return?As continues to unfold, the manifestations of human activity are turning into a tidal wave of global decimation and destruction.
As one of the leading causes of death around the world, suicide is a global public health threat.
In the Chinese population, suicides constitute one-fifth of all recorded suicides in the world. implemented timely interventions make suicide a global public health problem that needs to be tackled imperatively.
This report is the first WHO publication of its kind and brings. Why Suicide Has Become an Epidemic--and What We Can Do to Help. But suicide is not an economic problem or a generational tic. Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, Global Burden of. Suicide in men has been described as a “silent epidemic”: epidemic because of its high incidence and substantial contribution to men’s mortality, and silent because of a lack of public awareness, a paucity of explanatory research, and the reluctance of men to seek help for suicide-related concerns.