The three gorges dam case study

Concrete Dam Background Concrete dams are built in four basic shapes. The concrete gravity dam has weight as its strength. A cross section of this dam looks like a triangle, and the wide base is about three-fourths of the height of the dam.

The three gorges dam case study

Two well-understood cases were also world-class dam failures: The day before the breach, with leaks worsening, the project engineer is on record as being unworried. Vajont Dam, Italy, Europe's tallest dam was almost complete in the Italian Alps, when a giant landslide turned the reservoir into an foot tsunami that crashed over the dam, and destroyed five towns in seven minutes.

Vajont has been called one of the "great failures of science and engineering" - but it was very human choices that pushed the project on past warning signs. When dams fail, downstream areas are often inundated by floods, tsunamis, and mudflows.

The three gorges dam case study

The failures often cause fatalities, destruction of downtream structures, denudation of land, severe pollution, and massive disruption of downstream ecosystems, economies, and communities.

Dam failure is also usually also associated with loss of dam-related functions like irrigation, flood control, electricity generation, and mine operation. Large dams themselves are often huge capital assets, and thus are very expensive to lose. Failure Rates Water dam failures occur at a rate of roughly 1-in, per year, mostly in smaller dams.

Tailings dams fail much more frequently, at a rate of roughly 1-in per year studyor per year worldwide. Water Dam Failures Water dams have failed as long as humans have built them, and many of the principles involved - like the danger of overtopping and the devastating effects of spillway erosion - are something many of us see as children, playing with shovels and streams.

Most water dam failures occur in relatively small dams, but large dams have also occassionally failed. The challenge isn't finding examples of dam failure, but choosing among them.

The event causeddeaths, mostly from disease and famine which followed the flooding, and is named after the Banqiao Dam, the largest of the dams which failed. Because of the Cold War, the disaster was essentially unknown in the West. At this point, the failure was long past any possible containment.

The glassly blue water signals that deep water is flowing into a deeply eroded gap, and the visible slope of the tongue indicates a very powerful hydraulic gradient. In in the Italian Alps, a landslide displaced the partially filled reservoir of the recently completed Vajont dam, creating a wave which overtopped the dam by feet.

The wave descended through the steep alpine valley below, destroying five towns and killing 2, people in seven minutes. The deadliest dam failure in U. The largest dam failure in U. Water dam failures continue to occur periodically throughout the world, mostly in small dams and in countries with less stringent engineering and regulatory regimes.

In a textbook sequence, ordinary seepage turned to erosive seepage, and erosive seepage burrowed through and breached the dam. It temporarily displaced more than 20, people. Because mud flows more slowly than water, discharges and breaches in tailings dams generally lack the massive, instantly destructive force of a catastrophic water dam break.


However, they have a very high potential to cause severe environmental, social, and economic harm. In addition to damages caused by physical inundation and loss-of-services, the released material is often toxic or otherwise harmful to people and the environment.

Tailings dams are less numerous than water dams and have only been widely used in the last half-century.The Three Gorges Dam will serve to protect 15 million people and million acres of farmland in areas of the Yangtze River that are vulnerable to flooding.

To do this, the water height of the reservoir upstream from the dam will change according to season. Watch breaking news videos, viral videos and original video clips on Geography, climate and population Geography.

Ethiopia, with a total area of million kmĀ², lies in the northeastern part of the Horn of Africa. The dam will create a huge reservoir behind it km long stretching within the three gorges behind it and allow for the regulation of water west of the Dam.

The Three Gorges Project is speculated to be completed by , one year ahead of previous predicted schedule. Dam - The modern dam: Most modern dams are of two basic types: masonry (concrete) gravity designs and embankment (earthfill or rockfill) designs. Masonry dams are typically used to block streams running through relatively narrow gorges, as in mountainous terrain; although the structures may be very high, the total amount of material required for such sites is limited.

Concrete dams are built in four basic shapes. The concrete gravity dam has weight as its strength. A cross section of this dam looks like a triangle, and the wide base is about three-fourths of the height of the dam.

Three Gorges Dam - Wikipedia